How can a minister opt back into Social Security if he opted out many years ago?
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Ministers may opted out of Social Security by filing IRS Form 4361.
After doing so they may opt back into Social Security by filing IRS Form 2031.
Contact the IRS first before you do so since opting in may require you to pay the current year's self-employment tax and you may be liable for self-employment taxes for the three previous years. This will depend on circumstances that are particular to your case.