Mr. James Zitzmann's answer If you have an agreement with your former spouse, yes you can. The exception to this is if your spousal support case has been adjudicated in non-support court, then you cannot.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer If he passed away without a will, that means the default laws of how property is inherited will be used. In this case that appears to mean that you, and any siblings you have, will get naked ownership of the property and your mom will get a usufruct, meaning she will get the use of the property.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer That is unlikely to actually happen if all of the stuff you mentioned is community property. However, it would be possible to craft a consent judgment on the partition the way you want to do it. You do need to make sure they issue is properly before the court to avoid lesion.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer Well, someone has custody of you until you are 18. This means there is a possibility you could be returned. To get around this you'd need to petition a court for emancipation.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer Louisiana does not have common law marriage but will recognize common law marriages from other states. You would need to determine this first. However, you can file a petition to open the succession yourself since you're an heir.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer You can decide on a consent judgment to partition the community property in any way you two want to. However, you want to make sure the motion to partition is properly before the court to avoid the possible issue of lesion.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer You would have to file a petition for ex parte emergency custody. You'll need to talk to an attorney to get it done. The petition would be filed and walked through to the judge the same day, and if it is approved, you'll have a custody order the same day so you don't have to return the child, pending a hearing.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer You would likely have to speak to an attorney licensed in Florida to determine that. Here in louisiana there is a procedure for enforcing foreign judgments, and I am sure Florida has a comparable procedure.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer If he hasn't paid child support or exercised visitation in 5 years, you can move to terminate his parental rights. You'll very likely want an attorney to assist with this, though.
Mr. James Zitzmann's answer It depends on the circumstances. Who has legal custody of the child right now? If you have reason to believe either of the parents having custody is a danger, you could always file a petition yourself. Grandparents also may have a limited right to just visitation under certain circumstances; this mainly occurs with the death or incarceration of one of the parents, but there are also a few other very narrow exceptions.
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