Natalie Blackman's answer Employment law cases are fact sensitive so I cannot assess your chances of winning in Court based on the information provided; however, you should definitely file a claim with the EEOC. Mediation is optional; however, if your employer agree to it, it would not hurt you to go through mediation. If mediation fails, you can still request a Right to Sue (after 180 days) and take it to court.
Natalie Blackman's answer No, an employer cannot intimidate you into quitting because of health reasons. Generally, you can take sick leave if you are eligible, and it is available. Eligibility and availability would depend on the sick leave policy of your employer.
Charles Joseph Stiegler's answer Yes - a privately owned company in Louisiana may legally refuse to hire someone because of prior arrests, even if no charges were filed. Some states have "ban the box" laws limiting employees from considering applicants' criminal history and prior arrests. Louisiana is not one of them. The only exception is government jobs - a 2016 law makes it illegal for state agencies to consider prior criminal history (with some exceptions), and the same is true with New Orleans and Baton Rouge city jobs....
Charles Joseph Stiegler's answer Louisiana law generally allows employers to require employees to undergo background checks or drug tests by registered laboratories. Unless you have reason to believe they are singling you out because of a protected characteristic (race, religion, sex, age, national origin, disability) there doesn't seem to be anything unlawful based on what you've stated here.
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